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Pre-IPO Studies Are Not a Valid Basis for Calculating DLOMs

The two most widely approaches used by valuators to determine a discount for lack of marketability (DLOM) are restricted stock studies and IPO studies. The restricted stock studies compare transaction prices in restricted shares with contemporaneous trading prices for unrestricted shares. The pre-IPO studies, on the other hand, according to the author, lead to conclusions that are unsound in theory and in p ...

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StraightTalk Webinar Series—March 2021

COVID-19 and Business Valuation—One Year Later: What Worked and What Didn’t On March 2, 2021, Jim Hitchner, Managing Member of Valuation Products and Services (VPS), made a follow-up presentation, COVID-19 and Business Valuation—One Year Later: What Worked and What Didn’t. This article summarizes the issues discussed during this follow-up webinar. A year has passed since the COVID-19 pandemic first impacted ...

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Do Not Just Paint By Number When Preparing

A Business Valuation for a Controlling Interest CPAs are subject to multiple standards. Often, the standards prevent CPAs from exercising their judgment or applying common sense. The author describes this as “miss[ing] the boat.” This article illustrates this and provides an actual example where a group of valuators missed the boat. The purpose here is not to belittle, but to prompt CPAs to reflect on how t ...

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Best Practices for Estimating the Company-Specific Risk Premium

(Part III of IV) This is the third of a four-part article that sets forth best practices for estimating the company-specific risk premium. This part of the discussion describes the various empirical data sources that analysts may consider as proxies—or benchmarks—or approximations—in developing the CSRP estimate. Introduction Estimating the cost of capital is one component of private company business valuat ...

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COVID-19

An Opportunity for Gift and Estate Planning at Low Valuations The disruption brought about by COVID-19 created certain industry “winners” and “losers.” Many of those that emerged as losers are small and medium-sized privately held businesses such as restaurants, bakeries, gyms, hair salons and spas, and the corresponding real estate holding entities that leased to such businesses, held retail and office spa ...

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R.D. Clark and Sons, Inc., et al. v. James Clark, et al.

Connecticut Appellate Court Affirms Trial Court’s Decision Not to Tax-Affect Earnings In a dispute over the buyout of the minority shares in a family business, the Connecticut appellate court addressed several important valuation issues. Notably, the appellate court upheld the trial court’s decision not to tax-affect the company’s earnings in determining the fair value of the shares, even though both the pl ...

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Valuation Discounts

Applicable to Real Estate Holding Companies (Part II of II) In this second of a two-part series published in QuickRead August 01, 2019, the author discusses valuation discounts applicable to real estate holding companies and the incremental adjustments in the valuation of partial, non-controlling interests. After discussing the application of a minority discount or discount for lack of control (DLOC) in the ...

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Valuation Discounts

Applicable to Real Estate Holding Companies (Part I of II) In this two-part series, the author discusses real estate holding companies and describes the use of minority discounts (also known as the discount for lack of control [DLOC]) in the valuation of partial, non-controlling interests in entities holding real estate as their primary and most valuable asset. Part II will address the use of the discount f ...

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What to Consider When Divorcing Parties Have

Ownership Interests in Privately Held Companies This article focuses on concepts and issues that are important for family law attorneys to understand when navigating cases that involve divorcing clients with ownership interests in privately-held entities. One of the first questions that arises is whether we need to retain a valuation expert? This is an important question, where experts can provide attorneys ...

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Official and Unofficial Rules of Engagement with the IRS

Mike Gregory Discusses the Newly Released Five in One Book on Business Valuations and the IRS In this article, Michael Gregory provides some thoughts of how the official IRS rules of engagement are different from the unofficial rules of engagement and introduces how to work with the IRS. The 38 examples in the book provides additional insight. Mike Gregory recommends the book to all business valuation firms ...

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The Application of Guideline Publicly Traded Company Risk Adjustment

Quantifying the Risk Adjustment Depending on the valuation assignment facts and circumstances, the valuation analyst (analyst) may encounter a unique valuation problem: a problem that is well outside the ordinary scope of typical valuation issues. Unique problems provide the analyst an opportunity to develop thought leadership solutions in a manner that (1) provides value to the client and (2) assists the r ...

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CPE

That Lands New Clients We have a large body of knowledge that teaches us how to do the work, but few resources that teach us how to get the work. And even as we acquire the technical skills that enable us to perform better valuations, we need to position ourselves with buyers of our valuation services so that we can land new clients and apply those skills. How (and where) do we learn that? In this article, ...

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Using the Option Pricing Method Changes the Standard of Value

Does the IRS or Anyone Care? (Part II of II) Part one of this article presented the “current method” and “option pricing method” (OPM) for allocating value to common stock for 409a valuations, and how these two methods differ in pricing of common stock. Part two examines the implied changes made by OPM and how it affects stakeholders. The article begins with a brief review of the key impacts on the valuatio ...

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Objectively Supporting Discounts for Lack of Marketability

Using the Empirical Method Business appraisers around the country have historically used comparisons to the averages found in restricted stock studies to determine a discount for lack of marketability in their valuations of a privately held, noncontrolling interest in a business. While the average discounts from restricted stock studies are useful and indicate that discounts for lack of marketability do occ ...

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Exploring the Pluris® Restricted Stock Database and DLOM Calculator

A White Paper Detailing Use of the Pluris Database to Develop a DLOM (Part III of III) The Pluris DLOM methodology involves calculating two values: Restricted Stock Equivalent Discount (RSED) and Private Equity Discount Increment (PEDI). Does RSED represent an illiquid position that does not directly relate to the lack of marketability of a private held business? How reliable is the RSED DLOM? As for PEDI, ...

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Exploring the Pluris® Restricted Stock Database and DLOM Calculator

A White Paper Detailing Use of the Pluris Database to Develop a DLOM (Part II of III) In this second part, of a three-part series, Marc Vianello examines whether discounts reported in PLURIS DLOM Database are consistent with past changes in SEC Rule 144 required holding periods; How the PLURIS Restricted Stock Discounts Correlate with other reported Metrics; How to use PLURIS Database for Benchmarking; and ...

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Exploring the Pluris® Restricted Stock Database and DLOM Calculator

A White Paper Detailing Use of the Pluris Database to Develop a DLOM (Part I of III) Business valuation practitioners continue to debate the merits of different databases to develop a discount for lack of marketability (DLOM).  In this first- of a three-part series, Marc Vianello discusses what the Pluris DLOM database is, explores how accurately Pluris transactions are reported, and discusses how the Pluri ...

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