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The National Association of Certified Valuators and Analysts® (NACVA®) has been educating and credentialing CPAs and other financial advisors to support business owners in understanding the value of their business for the past quarter century. NACVA’s  global Certified Valuation Analyst® (CVA®) designation is the most widely recognized valuation credential and the only business valuation credential accredited by the National Commission for Certifying Agencies® (NCCA®).

The Meritocracy of an Unregulated Market

Is There a Need to Broaden Regulation? Can humans achieve economic market efficiency without the “visible hand” or is the collateral damage of decisions an unfortunate reality in exchange for the freedom of unregulated markets. This article discusses the role of regulation in an unregulated market and potential shifts. How do you measure ability when the parameters are not clearly defined? As valuation anal ...

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Understanding Net Working Capital

A Key Formula Used in Business Valuation Net working capital is a crucial component of business valuation since it impacts both a company’s enterprise value via its projected cash flows and its equity value via excess or deficient net working capital levels as of the valuation date. In addition, net working capital for valuation purposes is more nuanced than simply taking current assets minus current liabil ...

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How Bad Data Hurts Your Valuation

The Principles of Conservatism in Action Most business owners understand the industry in which they operate and tend to be good at running the day-to-day operations. Yet, that does not mean they have made optimal decisions or that they have the necessary controls and financials in place that enable them to make sound financial decisions. Companies that do not keep high quality data will likely have a lower ...

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Essential Guide to Gift Tax and Estate Planning

Consider the SLAT and GRAT in Gift Planning Understanding gift tax regulations is crucial for individuals and their advisors because it impacts estate planning strategies and can significantly affect the overall tax liability. Properly utilizing exemptions and understanding the rules surrounding gift taxation can help individuals minimize their tax burden and ensure a smooth transfer of assets to their inte ...

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Determining the Fair Market Value for a NFT

A Practice Guide for Practitioners What are the proper questions and approaches that enable valuation professionals to value non-fungible tokens (NFTs)? The author describes the questions and methods used to value NFTs. With the recent IRS proposal, the focus on fair market value is repeated as the preferred method for cryptocurrency transactions that do not involve cash.[1] The IRS redefines fair market va ...

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“Adequate Consideration” Defined?

A Legislative Approach? In April of 2023, the United States Department of Labor (DOL) committed to move forward with a regulation to clearly detail “adequate consideration” in section 408(e) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA). For decades the DOL has utilized litigation versus heeding Congress’s edict to enact regulations regarding adequate consideration and it seems as though ac ...

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The AI Revolution is Coming for Business Valuation and Forensic Accounting

How AI is Transforming the Industry Artificial Intelligence (AI) represents a paradigm shift in the realm of computational capabilities, transcending traditional boundaries of machine functionality to emulate human-like intelligence. AI has made remarkable advances in recent years due to the availability of massive amounts of data, powerful computing resources, and innovations in methods and architectures. ...

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Valuations in Private Buy/Sell Transactions

Factors to Arrive at a Value that are Beyond the Three Approaches This article addresses valuations for buy/sell transactions with private buyers and private sellers. A business owner calls and says: I want to sell my business. Can you tell me what it’s worth? Thousands of these transactions are occurring daily. But before you go any further, stop and ask more questions. As business valuators, we are condit ...

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Getting R.E.A.L. in Later-Stage, Venture-Backed Companies

A Process to “Right” the Company Often later-stage, venture-backed companies (“late-stage start-ups”) seek advice as they find themselves languishing in the neverland between being heavy on intellectual property (IP) assets and light on commercial products or services. Typically, we are contacted by an investor or board member who has become fatigued by management’s assertions that ultimate success is ‘just ...

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Cyborg or Human?

Refreshing Our Vision for Our Work Appraisal is one of the oldest and most universal human habits. Humans have been appraising since the beginning of time. Appraisal is also a uniquely human habit requiring a spectrum of skills and thought processes that are not found in nature or machines. While often impugned for being faulty and having a variety of biases, our ability to “appraise,” assess, form judgment ...

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Corporate Transparency Act and Beneficial Ownership Interest Reporting Requirements

Who Really Owns the Company!? Have you heard about the Corporate Transparency Act (CTA) Beneficial Ownership Interest Reporting (BOIR) requirements? The penalties for non-compliance are $591(adjusted for inflation) a day up to $10,000 and/or two years in jail. This article outlines the requirements for small private companies and ends with some suggestions for business valuation analysts. Have you heard abo ...

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Understanding IPCPL Theory, Evidence, and Application

Use in Private-Business Valuation (Part II) This article in this continuing series explains the Implied Private Company Pricing Line (IPCPL), theory, evidence, and application of the IPCPL. How to Understand IPCPL Theory In the first article in this series (published in two parts 02/01/24 and 02/08/24), it was shown that the Implied Private Company Pricing Line (IPCPL) theory explains and predicts the relat ...

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What the Tax Court Wants to See

In Your Expert Report This article includes tips for preparing an expert report but is not intended to be all inclusive. In addition to these points, remember to carefully consider professional standards, including those that are non-binding, and any code of ethics. Also prepare your report with the expectation of a Daubert motion or similar challenge to your qualifications and/or methodology. The Federal R ...

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The Power of Intention

How to Manifest a Better, More Fulfilling Valuation Practice Several months ago, a friend of mine gifted the article’s author a book entitled The Seven Spiritual Laws of Success: A practical guide to the fulfillment of your dreams, written by Deepak Chopra. A few of the sections within the book hit home more than others and the excitement that has inspired the author to write the article herein. The author ...

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Understanding IPCPL Theory, Evidence, and Application

Use in Private-Business Valuation (Part II of II) This two-part article in this continuing series explains the implied private company pricing line (IPCPL). Read Part I here. IPCPL explains and predicts how buyers and sellers of capital assets in private markets set risk-adjusted discount rates under conditions of non-zero transaction cost differentials between public and private markets; and, accordingly, ...

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Amended Rule 702’s Unimpeachably Neutral Impact

The Death of Testimonial Overstatement The proper interpretation for the standard of admissibility under the amended Rule 702 of the Federal Rules of Evidence will hopefully result in an evidentiary change that flies in the face of every hired gun’s essence, as the real impact of the trial court truly being a gatekeeper is that it will shield the jury from the testimonial overstatement salaciously proffered ...

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Understanding IPCPL Theory, Evidence, and Application

Use in Private-Business Valuation (Part I of II) This two-part article in this continuing series explains the implied private company pricing line (IPCPL). IPCPL explains and predicts how buyers and sellers of capital assets in private markets set risk-adjusted discount rates under conditions of non-zero transaction cost differentials between public and private markets; and, accordingly, IPCPL explains and ...

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Why Business Valuation is Heating Up for Estate and Gift Tax Planning Purposes

Forthcoming Changes in Gift and Estate Tax Thresholds In the complex world of gift and estate tax planning, significant changes are on the horizon. The 2026 sunset, a date circled in red on the calendars of tax professionals and high-net-worth individuals, potentially signifies the end of the current, more generous tax-free lifetime estate and gift tax thresholds. The authors share their thoughts on how the ...

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Value Drivers for Healthcare Services and Medical Practices

and Business Valuations This article delves into the key factors that shape the value of healthcare services, from cost behavior to pricing strategies, and offers insights into how valuation professionals can navigate this complex terrain. "Healthcare services are a fundamental necessity, and understanding the key drivers of value in medical practices and healthcare businesses is essential for conducting a ...

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Pressures to Step-up Basis Leads to an Ethics Question

Ethical and Practical Implications Too many appraisers omit the contingent BIGL in their appraisals. It certainly is easier to yield to the pressure of estate attorneys, CPAs, and the IRS on this point, but in light of the evidence for inclusion, is this the ethical path? The author discusses the merits and ethics of including the BIGL. Too many appraisers omit the contingent built-in capital gain tax liabi ...

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