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The National Association of Certified Valuators and Analysts® (NACVA®) has been educating and credentialing CPAs and other financial advisors to support business owners in understanding the value of their business for the past quarter century. NACVA’s  global Certified Valuation Analyst® (CVA®) designation is the most widely recognized valuation credential and the only business valuation credential accredited by the National Commission for Certifying Agencies® (NCCA®).

Intellectual Property Valuations

Analysts Caveats and Reporting Guidelines (Part V of V) This fifth and final installment presents valuation analyst caveats and reporting best practices related to the intellectual property valuation. Introduction The first four installments of this five-part discussion summarized the conceptual support for—and the practical application of—the relief from royalty (RFR) method of intellectual property valuat ...

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Intellectual Property Valuations

Illustrative Example of the Relief from Royalty Method (Part IV of V) Previous installments of this five-part discussion summarized the development of the market approach and the relief from royalty (RFR) method of intellectual property valuation. This fourth installment presents an illustrative example of the practical application of the RFR method. Introduction Previous installments of this five-part disc ...

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Intellectual Property Valuations

Application of the Relief from Royalty Method (Part III of V) This is the third article of a five-part series on valuation of intellectual property describing the application of the RFR method. Introduction This five-part discussion focuses on the market approach and the relief from royalty (RFR) method of intellectual property valuation. Prior parts of this series summarized the many reasons to develop the ...

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A Tribute to Dr. Shannon P. Pratt

Anecdotes from James R. Hitcher of Moments Spent with Dr. Shannon P. Pratt, a Pioneer in the Business Valuation Industry This discourse shares the author’s long, rewarding relationship with Dr. Shannon P. Pratt, an icon in business valuation (BV). He lived and breathed BV. Outside of his career, he had an intense love of life and liked to have fun. The author, James R. Hitchner, shares what he learned from ...

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Intellectual Property Valuations

Elements of the Valuation Analysis (Part II of V) This second article of the five-part series on Intellectual Property Valuations summarizes the typical elements of the intellectual property valuation analysis. This part of the discussion focuses on benchmarking and the use of research databases. Introduction This five-part series of discussions introduces the market approach and the relief from royalty (RF ...

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Intellectual Property Valuations

The Relief From Royalty Method (Part I of V) This is the first article of a five-part series that focuses on what valuation analysts and owner/operators need to know about one category of intangible property: intellectual property. There are generally accepted cost approach, market approach, and income approach methods that may be used to value intellectual property. This discussion focuses on the applicati ...

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Shannon Pratt’s Valuing a Business

Preserving a Legacy In this article, Roger J. Grabowski, FASA, shares with readers a personal story regarding his friendship. The forthcoming 6th edition is a tribute to Dr. Pratt, a close friend and leader of the profession. Introduction I am fortunate to have co-authored several books with Shannon. While I had gotten to know Shannon through conferences as well as through teaching valuation courses togethe ...

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S Corporation Valuations

Avoiding the Chaos and Selecting the Proper Methodology Over the past 20 years, business valuation analysts (and the courts) have debated whether there is an S corporation premium vis-à-vis the C corporation. This debate has led to the profusion of models and confusion. Four predominant models currently in use include: the Fannon, Delaware MRI, Van Vleet’s SEAM, and Treharne Model. Each of these models make ...

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Cost Approach to Intellectual Property Valuation

Part IV: Illustrative Examples Part I of this series discussed the conceptual foundations of the cost approach to intellectual property valuation. Part II described the generally accepted valuation methods within the cost approach to intellectual property valuation. Part III presented the practical measurement procedures in the application of the cost approach. In this final installment of this series, Part ...

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The Cash vs. Hybrid vs. Accrual Conundrum

What to Ask for and Use? Most small businesses use the cash basis of accounting. Despite that practice, prospective clients will prepare their books in a variety of different ways that do not conform with the accounting cash basis. There are hybrid and accrual cash basis and the business valuation practitioner needs to recognize the differences between these forms of accounting. In this article, the author ...

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Cost Approach to Intellectual Property Valuation

Part III: Practical Procedures Valuation analysts are often called on to value intellectual property for various transaction, taxation, financial accounting, corporate planning, litigation, and other reasons. In this Part III of this series, the discussion focuses on the practical measurement procedures related to the application of the cost approach in the intellectual property valuation. Introduction Valu ...

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Appraising Real Estate Centered Business Enterprises

A Conceptual Framework to Consider Real Estate Centered Business Enterprises (RECEs) commonly sell as real property going concerns with elements of real estate, personal property and a business enterprise component. Business appraisers face several challenges with these assignments due to the interdependence of the business with the other assets. Another key challenge for business appraisers with these type ...

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Cost Approach to Intellectual Property Valuation

Part II: Valuation Methods Part I of this four-part discussion considered the conceptual foundations for applying the cost approach to value intellectual property (including patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets). Part II summarizes the generally accepted valuation methods within the cost approach. Introduction Part I of this four-part discussion considered the conceptual foundations for applyi ...

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Could Missing Non-GAAP Adjustments Adversely Affect Your Concluded Value?

Why it Matters This article examines the major nonconformance issues the average valuator may face, where to find the information necessary to investigate, and how to make the adjustments to conform with GAAP. The adjustments discussed are not exhaustive but do cover the more common adjustments valuators should consider. While a valuation is not an audit, the valuation analyst must recognize material deviat ...

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Can You Delegate Your Due Diligence?

Development Standards and the Guidance Provided by the Kohler Decision The General and Ethical standard sets the overall values that must guide every expert in the exercise of his/her profession. One of the key steps in the Development Standard is the site visit and management interview. Some BV experts delegate this important responsibility to either their staff, or a different BV analyst in their firm and ...

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Cost Approach to Intellectual Property Valuation

Part I: Conceptual Principles This is a four-part article series. The articles and discussion focus on the conceptual principles and the practical applications of the cost approach in the development of intellectual property valuations. Part I of this discussion focuses on the conceptual principles that support the application of the cost approach to intellectual property valuation. Part II describes the ge ...

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Update on 2022 Healthcare Payment Rules

Center for Medicare & Medicaid Publishes Proposed and Final Rules on Medical Reimbursement Rates The U.S. government is the largest payor of medical costs, through Medicare and Medicaid, and consequently has a strong influence on physician reimbursement. The prevalence of these public payors in the healthcare marketplace often results in their acting as a price setter and being used as a benchmark for p ...

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Why Do We Mess With the Cost of Equity

But Not the Cost of Debt? Determining the cost of equity can be quite interesting whereas determining the cost of debt is often boring. We may add items to the cost of equity—such as a size or company specific risk premium—that arguably are not included in the CAPM methodology used to determine the cost equity. But then we do not add these items to the cost of debt. Do only equity investors care about size ...

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How to Maximize Sale Value When Selling a Company

Key Actions to Undertake to Increase the Price of a Company This article provides a brief overview covering what the author—a middle market investment banker—believes is the most worthwhile and impactful actions that anyone contemplating the sale of their business can take right now to set themselves up for success in a future transaction process. The author recommends that prospective sellers and their adv ...

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SPAC Attack

Six Months In Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPAC) have been a prime focus of the SEC over the last six months. On April 12, 2021, the SEC issued “Staff Statement on Accounting and Reporting Considerations for Warrants Issued by Special Purpose Acquisition Companies” to highlight potential accounting implications and provide guidance on making the determination between classifying the warrants issue ...

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