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The National Association of Certified Valuators and Analysts® (NACVA®) has been educating and credentialing CPAs and other financial advisors to support business owners in understanding the value of their business for the past quarter century. NACVA’s  global Certified Valuation Analyst® (CVA®) designation is the most widely recognized valuation credential and the only business valuation credential accredited by the National Commission for Certifying Agencies® (NCCA®).

The Unimpeachable Standard—One Voice Cannot Harmonize with Itself

Business Valuation Comparison Charts A quartet of present and former Standards Board chairs for the National Association of Certified Valuators and Analysts (NACVA) were on hand to harmonize about valuation standards during the 2018 NACVA and the CTI’s Annual Consultants' Conference at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas, Nevada. During NACVA’s Industry Standards and Ethics Update, and the Around the Valuation Worl ...

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Business Valuation with Odds

Odds as a Financial Ratio in Business Valuation Theory Every business transaction involves a bet of sort. This is also evidenced in the price of put and call options. Can we draw some insight from sports betting to help us calculate the value of a business? Perhaps. Odds in sports betting is a common expression communicating the change and return of winning a bet. Odds as a ratio in business valuation theor ...

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The Discount Period for the Terminal Value

Is Not Debatable This article explains why the undiscounted terminal value as of a future date must be discounted back by (a) N – 0.5 years when the traditional perpetuity method with a mid-period convention is used, (b) N years when the traditional perpetuity method with an end-of-period convention is used, or (c) N years when an exit multiple is used. ...

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Official and Unofficial Rules of Engagement with the IRS

Mike Gregory Discusses the Newly Released Five in One Book on Business Valuations and the IRS In this article, Michael Gregory provides some thoughts of how the official IRS rules of engagement are different from the unofficial rules of engagement and introduces how to work with the IRS. The 38 examples in the book provides additional insight. Mike Gregory recommends the book to all business valuation firms ...

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The Impact of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act

On Business Valuations The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) changes many aspects of how business analysts perform valuations. Upon passing of the TCJA, Jim Hitchner moved quickly to gather and disseminate information about the TCJA and its effect on business valuation. He has written two comprehensive articles in Issues 72 and 73 of Financial Valuation and Litigation Expert. The information in this article summ ...

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In re Appraisal of DFC Global

A Study of the Experts’ Inputs and Court Opinion How does a court go about deciding a valuation case when two experts oppose each other? The author examines the DFC Global Corporation decision to see what that reveals and how that may impact an expert’s future engagement. The author finds three takeaways for readers. ...

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The Perils of the “Power of Substitution”

For “Intentionally Defective” Grantor Trusts (Part I of II) The power of substitution is held by the settlor of a grantor trust if this power is provided by the trust instrument. This power allows the settlor, at any time, to remove an asset or assets from the grantor trust in exchange for an asset or assets of equivalent value. Such a transfer can be problematic and vulnerable to challenge if the equivalen ...

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Chasing the Elusive Butterfly of Volatility

Accepting and Rejecting Data from Public Company Data Valuation analysts who, for whatever reason, eschew the publicly traded guideline company method but who would like to use option models for various aspects of the valuation assignment, face a conundrum. All option models require, as an input, a volatility factor in percentage format. Since the only place to derive such a volatility factor (usually defin ...

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The SWS Group, Inc., Chancery Court Appraisal Decision

Fair Value Not Based on the Merger Price (Part II of II) This is the second of a two-part article (read part one here) that focuses on the SWS Group, Inc. case and the interplay between merger price and fair value. In earlier cases, the Delaware Court of Chancery rejected a merger price indication in favor of its own discounted cash flow analysis. Yet, in the SWS Group, Inc. appraisal decision, instead of a ...

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The SWS Group, Inc., Chancery Court Appraisal Decision

Fair Value Not Based on the Merger Price, Part I of II This is a two-part article that focuses on the SWS Group Inc. case and the interplay between merger price and fair value. In earlier cases the Delaware Court of Chancery rejected a merger price indication in favor of its own discounted cash flow analysis. Yet, in the SWS Group, Inc., appraisal decision, instead of a decision supporting a higher fair val ...

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Do Not Be Too Quick to Discount

A Discount for Controlling Interests This article examines studies and judicial decisions addressing the use of DLOMs where there are controlling, 100% ownership interests, followed by review of a recent client assignment that illustrates the importance of being well versed with the valuation theory in this area. ...

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Transferring Closely Held Company Equity

To a Key Employee—Part I of II The author encourages, as a starting point, owners of a closely held company to consider numerous issues with regard to the compensation of key employees. If the closely held company operations are successful, valuable and long-term employees sometimes seek to be compensated through an equity ownership in the company. This key employee desire for equity ownership has practical ...

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Practical Advice on Rebutting and/or Defending a Valuation Report

While valuation may generally be part art and part science, rebutting and/or defending a valuation introduces additional types of art and science. The stakes are often higher because interested parties are affected by the contested valuation’s outcome, and the narrative can become more nuanced due to conflicting views on a variety of issues. This article endeavors to cut through the clutter and provide prac ...

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Why All Values Are Not Created Equal

Understanding Terms and Bridging a Potential Valuation Gap It is not uncommon for litigation to stem from disagreements over the value of privately held companies and ownership interests in those entities. In those situations, many different values are often discussed as the parties attempt to reach a resolution. It is important to make sure that the parties are speaking the same language as far as the type ...

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