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The National Association of Certified Valuators and Analysts® (NACVA®) has been educating and credentialing CPAs and other financial advisors to support business owners in understanding the value of their business for the past quarter century. NACVA’s  global Certified Valuation Analyst® (CVA®) designation is the most widely recognized valuation credential and the only business valuation credential accredited by the National Commission for Certifying Agencies® (NCCA®).

Issues in Estimating

The Cost of Equity Capital (Part II of II) This is the second of a two-part series article focused on issues that arise estimating the cost of equity capital. In most forensic-related valuation analyses, one procedure that affects most valuations is the measurement of the present value discount rate. This discount rate analysis may affect the forensic-related valuation of private companies, business ownersh ...

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Issues in Estimating

The Cost of Equity Capital (Part I of II) This is the first of a two-part series article focused on issues that arise estimating the cost of equity capital. In most forensic-related valuation analyses, one procedure that affects most valuations is the measurement of the present value discount rate. This discount rate analysis may affect the forensic-related valuation of private companies, business ownership ...

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Terminal Values in DCFs

And Runaway Valuations In a discounted cash flow analysis, a large portion of a firm’s value is typically attributed to the terminal value, i.e., the value beyond the projection period. Valuation presentations often show or discuss what happens to the firm’s value if the perpetuity growth rate (PGR) is changed. In this sensitivity analysis, it is common to see wild swings in valuations because the terminal ...

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Equity Size Premium

Observations and Delaware Fair Value (Part II of II) This is the second of a two-part article, read Part I here, that focuses on empirical evidence supporting the size premium adjustment, observations regarding the CRSP size premium 10th decile category, liquidity issues that may account for the size premium, and certain Delaware Chancery Court decisions involving a size premium discussion. In this second p ...

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Equity Size Premium

Observations and Delaware Fair Value (Part I of II) This is a two-part article that focuses on empirical evidence supporting the size premium adjustment, observations regarding the CRSP size premium 10th decile category, liquidity issues that may account for the size premium, and certain Delaware Chancery Court decisions involving a size premium discussion. These are discussed since in the past few years th ...

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Confronting Behavior Bias

In Financial Projections (Part II of II) This is a two-part article that considers the review and assessment of prospective financial information. Specifically, this discussion describes the behavioral bias that may influence financial projections. This discussion should inform any party involved in compiling or assessing financial projections. This discussion is particularly relevant for fiduciaries who ma ...

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Common Sense, Simplicity, and

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 H.R.1 There was a flurry of activity within the valuation community following passage of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (TCJA) and several complicated tax calculation models were unveiled. While we acknowledge the TCJA is beginning to show a noticeable impact on the level of our value conclusions, how much of an impact ought it really have on the way we perform our work? ...

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Confronting Behavior Bias

In Financial Projections (Part I of II) This is a two-part article that considers the review and assessment of prospective financial information. Specifically, this discussion describes the behavioral bias that may influence financial projections. This discussion should inform any party involved in compiling or assessing financial projections. This discussion is particularly relevant for fiduciaries who may ...

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Terminal Value

The Problem with Exit Multiples Most of an Income Approach-based valuation is frequently in the terminal value. Thus, an Income Approach-based valuation that relies on an exit multiple to arrive at a terminal value is essentially a Market Approach-based valuation in disguise. Many practitioners do not use an exit multiple to arrive at a terminal value for this reason. Nevertheless, numerous practitioners pr ...

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The Treatment of Synergistic Value

In Dissenting Shareholder Appraisal Rights Matters (Part II of II) The Delaware Court of Chancery decisions on the treatment of synergistic value in dissenting shareholder appraisal rights cases provide meaningful guidance to valuation analysts, legal counsel, and other courts. This final part of the article continues the discussion on recent judicial decisions issued by the Delaware Court of Chancery where ...

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The Treatment of Synergistic Value

In Dissenting Shareholder Appraisal Rights Matters (Part I of II) The Delaware Court of Chancery decisions on the treatment of synergistic value in dissenting shareholder appraisal rights cases provide meaningful guidance to valuation analysts, legal counsel, and other courts. In this two-part article, the author discusses recent judicial decisions issued by the Delaware Court of Chancery where synergistic ...

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What is in a Purchase Price?

It is all Based on Your Perspective In this article, the author presents three common ways that a single purchase price may be calculated and presented. With football season on the horizon, I cannot help but think about September 24, 2013—a night that many football fans will not soon forget. The Seattle Seahawks were playing the Green Bay Packers on Monday Night Football. The game was going down to the wire ...

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Finding “True North” in Recent Delaware Appraisal Cases

Is it the Market or the Model? Petitioners in Delaware appraisal cases must necessarily argue that fair value exceeds the deal price. In contrast, financial economists tend to view prices from a well-functioning market as “true north” when valuing a stock. Valuation models—such as a discounted cash flow (DCF) model—+can be important tools but are known to be sensitive to their numerous inputs. When such a m ...

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A Method for Calculating

The Excess Earnings Capitalization Rate This article presents a method for calculating the capitalization rate for excess earnings. The good news is that this capitalization rate can be calculated. The bad news is that with the calculated excess earnings capitalization rate, the excess earnings method gives the same value as the single period capitalization method under the Income Approach, i.e., the excess ...

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How to Value

Privately Held Promissory Notes How should a privately held promissory note be valued? In this article Bruce Johnson answers this question. Bruce notes that the key issues to consider when valuing a privately held promissory note are the interest rate, amortization term, collateral, payment history, covenants and marketability of the note being valued. Once this information is assessed, an appraiser can con ...

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Valuation Discounts

Applicable to Real Estate Holding Companies (Part II of II) In this second of a two-part series published in QuickRead August 01, 2019, the author discusses valuation discounts applicable to real estate holding companies and the incremental adjustments in the valuation of partial, non-controlling interests. After discussing the application of a minority discount or discount for lack of control (DLOC) in the ...

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Valuation Discounts

Applicable to Real Estate Holding Companies (Part I of II) In this two-part series, the author discusses real estate holding companies and describes the use of minority discounts (also known as the discount for lack of control [DLOC]) in the valuation of partial, non-controlling interests in entities holding real estate as their primary and most valuable asset. Part II will address the use of the discount f ...

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An Unimpeachably Neutral Message from the Standards Board Chair

A Neutral Approach to Unimpeachable Standards C. Zachary Meyers, CPA. CVA, the author of this article, is NACVA’s Standards Board (SDB) Chair. The SDB was formed in 2016. The SDB’s purpose is to promulgate NACVA’s Standards, including the development of interpretations, amendments, restatements, and new releases of NACVA’s Standards as deemed necessary and prudent. While being able to influence the very rul ...

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Limit on Deductions for Executive Compensation at Public Companies

The Limits Applied to Public and Private Companies The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) made important changes to Section 162(m) of the Internal Revenue Code. That section limits a publicly held corporation’s tax deduction for compensation paid to each covered employee to a maximum of $1,000,000 per year. A corporation is publicly held if it has issued securities required to be registered under Section 12 of th ...

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How Not to Use Duff & Phelps Data

A Discussion of Rover Pipeline, LLC v. 10.55 Acres of Land, More or Less, in Ashland County, Ohio, et al. “In God we trust. All others must bring data.” This famous saying has been attributed to various people, but it implies that when data is presented, the conclusion can be trusted. However, the Ohio District Court’s decision in Rover Pipeline, LLC v. 10.55 Acres of Land, More or Less, in Ashland County, ...

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