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Determining the Fair Market Value for a NFT

A Practice Guide for Practitioners What are the proper questions and approaches that enable valuation professionals to value non-fungible tokens (NFTs)? The author describes the questions and methods used to value NFTs. With the recent IRS proposal, the focus on fair market value is repeated as the preferred method for cryptocurrency transactions that do not involve cash.[1] The IRS redefines fair market va ...

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Understanding IPCPL Theory, Evidence, and Application

Use in Private-Business Valuation (Part II of II) This two-part article in this continuing series explains the implied private company pricing line (IPCPL). Read Part I here. IPCPL explains and predicts how buyers and sellers of capital assets in private markets set risk-adjusted discount rates under conditions of non-zero transaction cost differentials between public and private markets; and, accordingly, ...

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Understanding IPCPL Theory, Evidence, and Application

Use in Private-Business Valuation (Part I of II) This two-part article in this continuing series explains the implied private company pricing line (IPCPL). IPCPL explains and predicts how buyers and sellers of capital assets in private markets set risk-adjusted discount rates under conditions of non-zero transaction cost differentials between public and private markets; and, accordingly, IPCPL explains and ...

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A Contrarian View to Discount for Lack of Control

The “Least Bad” Method Determining a discount for lack of control (DLOC) is one of the more challenging tasks facing business valuators. The reason for this is the methodologies used each have weaknesses. In this article, David Goodman looks at two methods and explains the difficulties in relying on them. This is a case where business appraisers may need to rely on the “least bad” method … a term of art. De ...

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Intellectual Property Valuations

Elements of the Valuation Analysis (Part II of V) This second article of the five-part series on Intellectual Property Valuations summarizes the typical elements of the intellectual property valuation analysis. This part of the discussion focuses on benchmarking and the use of research databases. [su_pullquote align="right"]Resources:Intellectual Property Valuations: The Relief from Royalty Method (Part I o ...

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Helping the Client Understand Technical Terms

To Create a Visual Picture Every profession has its own unique vocabulary, and although everyone in the field understands the terms or abbreviations, the public most likely does not. An easy way to help people understand technical terms or a profession's distinctive vocabulary is to create a “word picture” that links that unique word to some everyday idea or object. The author suggests that metaphors and si ...

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Business Valuations

for SBA Lending Programs Despite the pandemic, the number of small businesses started continues to increase. This article discusses the various Small Business Administration (SBA) programs and the value of serving these lenders. “Success is a full-time job.” Grant Cardone Any entrepreneur or a small business owner would agree that running a successful small business is a full-time job. To run it well requir ...

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Case Study

Changing Assignments from Fairness Opinion to Business Valuation Commercial damages matters can be challenging and require a flexible mind when “wrapping your brain” around the issues and facts of a particular case. Beginning in the first quarter of 2019 and running through October 2020, I had an assignment which began with a simple fairness opinion letter and ended with my testifying at trial to defend my ...

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Legacy Payments

Miscalculations and Entitlement Traps? What exactly is a “Legacy Payment”? Legacy Payments are those payments made to the prior generation when the next generation buys a family business. These payments include the debt service, principal and interest, on the purchase of the family business and possibly the real estate too; in addition, there are other types of Legacy Payments that can add weight to the tot ...

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Private Equity Investment in the Healthcare Industry

Private Equity’s Fast and Furious Entry into Healthcare (Part III of III) The third of this three-part series examines why private equity and venture capital firms are targeting the healthcare industry and the issues that they encounter managing their healthcare portfolio. Private equity (PE) and venture capital (VC) firms are attracted by the potential for growth that exists in the healthcare industry; how ...

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What to Consider When Divorcing Parties Have

Ownership Interests in Privately Held Companies This article focuses on concepts and issues that are important for family law attorneys to understand when navigating cases that involve divorcing clients with ownership interests in privately-held entities. One of the first questions that arises is whether we need to retain a valuation expert? This is an important question, where experts can provide attorneys ...

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Home Health and Hospice Enterprises

Fair Market Value Considerations (Part II of II) The first of this two-part series reviewed the unique value drivers that impact the typical valuation approaches, methods, and techniques that are often utilized in determining the value of these enterprises in the current healthcare delivery system. This second part will discuss the value drivers related to home healthcare and hospice enterprises. Introducti ...

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Home Health and Hospice Enterprises

Fair Market Value Considerations (Part I of II) The valuation of home healthcare and hospice enterprises and services are influenced by certain market forces related to the Four Pillars of Healthcare Valuation, i.e.,: (1) regulatory; (2) reimbursement; (3) competition; and, (4) technology—each of which relates to almost all aspects of the U.S. healthcare delivery system. This first of a two-part series on h ...

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Trade Secrets

Considerations for Fair Market Value Healthcare enterprises are increasingly relying on intangible assets to enhance their ability to provide timely, quality professional medical services to patients. Trade secrets are one such class of intangible asset that may be owned by a healthcare enterprise. A trade secret is any information that has economic value and is not generally known by the public. Technical ...

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Management Services Agreements

This article briefly discusses the current trends in the practice management industry, as these trends may directly and indirectly affect both the management company and the healthcare entity. This overview of the services provided by practice management groups, is followed by a discussion of the competitive, reimbursement, regulatory, and technological environments in which practice management groups opera ...

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The Due Diligence Imperative for the Valuation of Healthcare

Enterprises, Assets, and Services With the emergence of value-based reimbursement, such as accountable care organizations (ACOs), clinically integrated networks (CINs), and bundled payment models, which rely on achieving the “Triple Aim” of healthcare at lower cost, U.S. hospitals are increasingly looking to change how services are being delivered by seeking more collaborative relationships with physicians, ...

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Personal Goodwill

The Value of a Business is Not Always What it Seems (Part II of II) Personal goodwill is taxed at the individual capital gains tax rate, not the higher corporate income tax rate. Therefore, a credible personal goodwill calculation can amount to significant tax savings. One that is not adequately defensible invites risk of an audit. Every personal goodwill calculation is unique to each business, and the mana ...

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Valuation of Compensation for Physician Services

Physician On-Call Services This article focuses on physician on-call services and issues that valuation professionals must anticipate and consider in such an engagement. The article is a distillation of an in-depth article published in The Value Examiner July/August 2017 issue. In that issue, the authors also discuss classification and valuation of compensation for physician services and valuation of medica ...

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The Asset-Based Valuation Approach

ANAV Method Illustrative Example This discussion is the final installment of a series related to the asset-based business valuation approach. The prior discussion described the theory and methodology of the adjusted net asset value (ANAV) method. This final discussion presents an illustrative example of the application of the ANAV method. ...

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Goodwill

Why it Shouldn’t be A Dirty Word in the Valuation of Physician Practices The topic of goodwill in a physician practice acquisition continues to be hotly debated. There are very different viewpoints from reputable appraisers on how to value physician practices and whether hospitals can pay for goodwill in an acquisition. I often hear healthcare professionals involved in acquisitions say, “Hospitals can’t pay ...

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