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The National Association of Certified Valuators and Analysts® (NACVA®) has been educating and credentialing CPAs and other financial advisors to support business owners in understanding the value of their business for the past quarter century. NACVA’s  global Certified Valuation Analyst® (CVA®) designation is the most widely recognized valuation credential and the only business valuation credential accredited by the National Commission for Certifying Agencies® (NCCA®).

Proponents of the Efficient Market Hypothesis

Always Want More Cowbell The More Cowbell skit can be repurposed to explain debates over the efficient market hypothesis. Many proponents of the efficient market hypothesis may initially find it annoying that nonbelievers do not share their view. However, believers’ faith in the efficient market hypothesis is dependent on nonbelievers continuing to try, but inevitably failing, to ‘beat the market.’ The effi ...

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Are Price to Revenue and Price/Earnings Valuation Methods Really Independent Valuation Methods?

Views Developed by an Appraiser Working with Business Brokers to Assess FMV Business appraisers typically assume that Price/Revenue, Price/SDE, Price/EBITDA and Price/EBIT, etc., are independent valuation methods. But, are they independent? This article shares my views on this subject matter and why they will lead to different conclusions of value. ...

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Stuck in the Middle (with Who?)

Unsystematic Risk Premia in Privately Held Companies How does a valuation professional quantify and defend the unsystematic risk premia (URP)? Is the latter a factor that helps explain why CAPM is less frequently used valuing a privately held company? As for Total Beta, is that any better than the use of Beta? In this article, the author suggests if one accepts that imperfect diversification (ID) explains t ...

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The Small Business Administration Modifies

Its Approach to Approving Franchise Loan Applications This article summarizes changes implemented that affect SBA lending in the franchise context and that became effective in 2017. Within the franchise industry, financing backed by the SBA is one of the most important sources of funding for franchisees who wish to establish or grow a franchise. However, since the beginning of 2017, SBA funding within the f ...

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Valuation of Compensation for Physician Services

Clinical Services (Part I of IV) In the March/April 2017 issue of The Value Examiner, the authors gave a detailed description of how clinical services for physicians can be calculated. QuickRead is pleased to present an overview of this series, which will be presented in four parts. Please look for the more detailed analysis in The Value Examiner. ...

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The Asset-Based Valuation Approach

ANAV Method Illustrative Example This discussion is the final installment of a series related to the asset-based business valuation approach. The prior discussion described the theory and methodology of the adjusted net asset value (ANAV) method. This final discussion presents an illustrative example of the application of the ANAV method. ...

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Fair Value Measurements

In the Crosshairs of Regulators In this article, Mark Zyla of Acuitas discusses trends in fair value measurements in financial reporting and enforcement actions. Mr. Zyla notes that financial reporting is increasingly scrutinized by regulators. He observes that recent inspection reports of accounting firms that audit publicly traded entities by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) have indi ...

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The Asset-Based Valuation Approach

The Adjusted Net Asset Value Method This discussion is the fifth part in a series regarding the asset-based business valuation approach. Previous discussions described the theory and application of the Asset-based Approach. And, previous discussions described the theory and application of the asset accumulation (AA) method. This discussion describes the theory and application of the adjusted net asset value ...

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Book Review—What It’s Worth

Hotel Business Value QuickRead’s Technical Editor, Roberto Castro, reviews BVR’s What It’s Worth: Hotel Business Value.  There are few resources available for business valuation professionals that focus on the valuation of hotels.  The “go to” reference books have been Stephen Rushmore, MAI and Erich Baum’s Hotels & Motels: Valuations and Market Studies, a 2001 Appraisal Institute publication, and David ...

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The Asset-Based Valuation Approach

Asset Accumulation Method This discussion is the third part of a series. Previous discussions introduced the theoretical concepts and the practical applications of the asset-based business valuation approach. This discussion describes one common Asset-based Approach valuation method: the asset accumulation (AA) method. ...

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The Asset-Based Valuation Approach

Common Analyst Misconceptions The first article in this series provided an introduction to valuation analysts (analyst) regarding the need to integrate and use the Asset-based Approach to value going-concern businesses and securities. This second installment addresses common analyst misconceptions regarding the use of the Asset-based Approach to value both asset holding companies and operating companies. ...

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The Asset-Based Valuation Approach

Introduction Valuation analysts are retained to value closely held businesses, business ownership interest, and securities for a variety of transaction, financing, taxation, accounting, litigation, and planning purposes. For each engagement, analysts consider the three generally accepted business valuation approaches: the Income Approach, the Market Approach, and the Asset-based Approach. However, most anal ...

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Why We Shouldn’t Add a Size Premium to the CAPM Cost of Equity

A Critique of the Ibbotson Methodology In this paper, the author argues that the Size Premium in Excess of CAPM (and other similar size premium measures) should not be used by valuation practitioners because: a) it is inconsistent with the empirical evidence; b) it is constructed using a method that is inconsistent with how practitioners estimate their CAPM cost of equity; and c) it does not properly calcul ...

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Estimating Debt Betas and Beta Unlevering Formulas

Use of Benninga-Sarig to Estimate Debt Betas in a Valuation Engagement In the July 8, 2016 In re Appraisal of DFC Global Corp. Opinion (DFC Opinion), the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware suggested that debt betas should be estimated for individual companies and it cited Pratt and Grabowski’s Cost of Capital as a source for debt betas based on the firm’s credit rating. In addition, the Court also a ...

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Transfer Pricing Business Models

Aligning Business Models and Business Practices A key factor in establishing a reasonable transfer price is establishing the business model used by sales and distribution organizations. In this article, the authors describe the three primary models and their relevance establishing and defending a transfer price. ...

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