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The National Association of Certified Valuators and Analysts® (NACVA®) has been educating and credentialing CPAs and other financial advisors to support business owners in understanding the value of their business for the past quarter century. NACVA’s  global Certified Valuation Analyst® (CVA®) designation is the most widely recognized valuation credential and the only business valuation credential accredited by the National Commission for Certifying Agencies® (NCCA®).

The Asset-Based Valuation Approach

Common Analyst Misconceptions The first article in this series provided an introduction to valuation analysts (analyst) regarding the need to integrate and use the Asset-based Approach to value going-concern businesses and securities. This second installment addresses common analyst misconceptions regarding the use of the Asset-based Approach to value both asset holding companies and operating companies. ...

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The Asset-Based Valuation Approach

Introduction Valuation analysts are retained to value closely held businesses, business ownership interest, and securities for a variety of transaction, financing, taxation, accounting, litigation, and planning purposes. For each engagement, analysts consider the three generally accepted business valuation approaches: the Income Approach, the Market Approach, and the Asset-based Approach. However, most anal ...

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Why We Shouldn’t Add a Size Premium to the CAPM Cost of Equity

A Critique of the Ibbotson Methodology In this paper, the author argues that the Size Premium in Excess of CAPM (and other similar size premium measures) should not be used by valuation practitioners because: a) it is inconsistent with the empirical evidence; b) it is constructed using a method that is inconsistent with how practitioners estimate their CAPM cost of equity; and c) it does not properly calcul ...

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Estimating Debt Betas and Beta Unlevering Formulas

Use of Benninga-Sarig to Estimate Debt Betas in a Valuation Engagement In the July 8, 2016 In re Appraisal of DFC Global Corp. Opinion (DFC Opinion), the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware suggested that debt betas should be estimated for individual companies and it cited Pratt and Grabowski’s Cost of Capital as a source for debt betas based on the firm’s credit rating. In addition, the Court also a ...

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Transfer Pricing Business Models

Aligning Business Models and Business Practices A key factor in establishing a reasonable transfer price is establishing the business model used by sales and distribution organizations. In this article, the authors describe the three primary models and their relevance establishing and defending a transfer price. ...

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The Quandary Over Wandry

Audit Risk and Use of Defined Value Clauses Estate planning attorneys and their clients are aware of the risk of an audit. Despite knowing this risk, they seek certainty. Business valuation is as much art, as it is science. Estate planning attorneys have devised techniques to hedge the aforementioned risk and provide their clients with a greater degree of certainty. One such technique utilized by estate pla ...

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IRS Section 2704

NACVA Present at the Congressional Hearings on the Proposed Regulations In 2015, the IRS issued proposed section 2704 regulations. The proposal would severely impact valuations of family held businesses that are the subject of gifts. On December 1, 2016, hearings were held in Congress regarding the impact of the proposed regulations. NACVA members, Peter Agrapides, Robert Grossman, and Mark Hanson testified ...

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Bernie Madoff Fraud Fallout

A Valuation Perspective In this article, three U.S. Tax Court cases are discussed. Each case stems from the fallout which occurred after the discovery of the Madoff Ponzi scheme amounted to more than just lost investments for each of the investors. The end-effect is much more far-reaching and complex, as many investors have been forced to pay hefty legal bills in a battle to reduce their estate tax liabilit ...

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Objectively Supporting Discounts for Lack of Marketability

Using the Empirical Method Business appraisers around the country have historically used comparisons to the averages found in restricted stock studies to determine a discount for lack of marketability in their valuations of a privately held, noncontrolling interest in a business. While the average discounts from restricted stock studies are useful and indicate that discounts for lack of marketability do occ ...

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A Crisis is Brewing

What NACVA is Doing to Protect Our Industry On August 4, 2016, the U.S. Treasury in lock-step with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) published Proposed Treasury Regulation 163113-02 (hereafter, the “proposed regulations”) which intend to drastically alter the application of current Internal Revenue Code §2704, particularly as it applies to valuations of family owned businesses and family farms. The propose ...

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Exploring the Pluris® Restricted Stock Database and DLOM Calculator

A White Paper Detailing Use of the Pluris Database to Develop a DLOM (Part III of III) The Pluris DLOM methodology involves calculating two values: Restricted Stock Equivalent Discount (RSED) and Private Equity Discount Increment (PEDI). Does RSED represent an illiquid position that does not directly relate to the lack of marketability of a private held business? How reliable is the RSED DLOM? As for PEDI, ...

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Exploring the Pluris® Restricted Stock Database and DLOM Calculator

A White Paper Detailing Use of the Pluris Database to Develop a DLOM (Part II of III) In this second part, of a three-part series, Marc Vianello examines whether discounts reported in PLURIS DLOM Database are consistent with past changes in SEC Rule 144 required holding periods; How the PLURIS Restricted Stock Discounts Correlate with other reported Metrics; How to use PLURIS Database for Benchmarking; and ...

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Analyzing Complex Appraisals for Business Professionals by Shannon P. Pratt and John Lifflander

Appraisals from Real Estate, Machinery and Equipment to Business Valuation: Book Review by Michael D. Pakter The purpose of this book review is to introduce the reader to Shannon P. Pratt’s newest book, co-authored with John Lifflander. For those improbable few business valuation professionals who do not know who Dr. Pratt is, he is the Chairman and CEO of Shannon Pratt Business Valuation, Inc. and Publishe ...

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Inherited Property

The Tax Rules Were Never Friendlier, But Changes May be on the Way The biggest loophole in the tax code may soon be coming to an end—at least according to the messages sent by the Obama administration and its recent budget proposals. The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 (ATRA) set a whole new tone for most estate plans when it took the dreaded estate tax off the table. However, it is no secret that the ...

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