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The National Association of Certified Valuators and Analysts® (NACVA®) has been educating and credentialing CPAs and other financial advisors to support business owners in understanding the value of their business for the past quarter century. NACVA’s  global Certified Valuation Analyst® (CVA®) designation is the most widely recognized valuation credential and the only business valuation credential accredited by the National Commission for Certifying Agencies® (NCCA®).

Transferring Closely Held Company Equity

To a Key Employee—Part I of II The author encourages, as a starting point, owners of a closely held company to consider numerous issues with regard to the compensation of key employees. If the closely held company operations are successful, valuable and long-term employees sometimes seek to be compensated through an equity ownership in the company. This key employee desire for equity ownership has practical ...

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Practical Advice on Rebutting and/or Defending a Valuation Report

While valuation may generally be part art and part science, rebutting and/or defending a valuation introduces additional types of art and science. The stakes are often higher because interested parties are affected by the contested valuation’s outcome, and the narrative can become more nuanced due to conflicting views on a variety of issues. This article endeavors to cut through the clutter and provide prac ...

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Why All Values Are Not Created Equal

Understanding Terms and Bridging a Potential Valuation Gap It is not uncommon for litigation to stem from disagreements over the value of privately held companies and ownership interests in those entities. In those situations, many different values are often discussed as the parties attempt to reach a resolution. It is important to make sure that the parties are speaking the same language as far as the type ...

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Which is Best: EV/EBITDA, EV/EBITA, or EV/EBIT?

Adherence to Development and Reporting Standards in Family Law Litigation When applied correctly, the Market Approach can link value to market evidence and help support a thorough and well-reasoned valuation. However, valuation analysts often struggle with a variety of challenges when applying the Market Approach that include locating and selecting good comparable companies, selecting or calculating various ...

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New Sanity Check Model

Provides Independent Validation of Indicated Values Newly-minted valuation analysts may question the reasonableness of their conclusion of value. That is natural. In this article, the author introduces readers to the Hypothetical Willing Buyer-Willing Seller Sanity Check Model. This is a model developed by the author in connection with valuation of a 100% controlling interest. ...

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Analyzing Transactional Databases

Issues Using Transactional Databases and whether there is a Florida Effect that Biases the Transaction Multiplies In this article, the author discusses issues that impact the transaction multiples. He warns appraisers that it is dangerous to assume that the data offered by the transactional databases is consistent from transaction to transaction and, therefore, can be combined into a single sample and then ...

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The Application of Guideline Publicly Traded Company Risk Adjustment

Quantifying the Risk Adjustment Depending on the valuation assignment facts and circumstances, the valuation analyst (analyst) may encounter a unique valuation problem: a problem that is well outside the ordinary scope of typical valuation issues. Unique problems provide the analyst an opportunity to develop thought leadership solutions in a manner that (1) provides value to the client and (2) assists the r ...

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Reasonableness of Shareholder/Executive Compensation

Challenging and Defending Compensation and Use of the Independent Investor Test C corporations and S corporations should pay shareholder/executive compensation based on the fair market value of the executive services rendered—or risk being audited and possibly penalized by the Internal Revenue Service. Forensic analysts can help companies determine reasonable shareholder/executive compensation using free or ...

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EBT or EBITDA

Which Measure is Best for Normalization? Analysts face a potentially major issue when using EBT as the starting point for normalizing future earnings using traditional business valuation fundamentals. An issue arises when assumptions used in forecasting key expenses for normalized earnings differ from the way those expenses were calculated in the historical EBT. Key expenses that can have a large impact on ...

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Personal Goodwill

The Value of a Business is Not Always What it Seems (Part II of II) Personal goodwill is taxed at the individual capital gains tax rate, not the higher corporate income tax rate. Therefore, a credible personal goodwill calculation can amount to significant tax savings. One that is not adequately defensible invites risk of an audit. Every personal goodwill calculation is unique to each business, and the mana ...

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Personal Goodwill

The Value of a Business is Not Always What it Seems (Part I of II) Personal goodwill is taxed at the individual capital gains tax rate, not the higher corporate income tax rate. Therefore, a credible personal goodwill calculation can amount to significant tax savings. One that is not adequately defensible invites risk of an audit. Every personal goodwill calculation is unique to each business, and the manag ...

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One Explanation for the Variance in the Price/EBITDA Multiple

Given a Fixed Amount of EBITDA After reading Steve Egna’s article in the April 12, 2017 issue of QuickRead Buzz, in which he suggests that a larger multiple of EBITDA is realized as the number of employees of the selling business increases, the author considered testing whether that same approach could help explain why a certain amount of EBITDA would generate multiple amounts of MVIC. In this article, the ...

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The Economic Balance Sheet

and its Application to Enterprise Valuation The value of a firm must equal the value of the claims on its assets. In practice, this is generally expressed as the value FIRM = value DEBT + value EQUITY. Similarly, in a balance sheet prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), assets = liabilities and equity. By comparison, an economic balance sheet is constructed using market ...

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Business Valuation and Reporting in Matrimonial Disputes

Adherence to Development and Reporting Standards in Family Law Litigation Family law practitioners deal with a host of complexities when resolving matrimonial disputes.  In high net worth cases, financial considerations soon become paramount.  Often the largest financial asset on the marital balance sheet is an interest in a closely held business controlled and operated by the family or single spouse.  In t ...

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Exelon Corp. v. Commissioner

A Decision that Illustrates the Importance of Appraiser Independence To successfully work in the field of business valuation, appraisers must perform assignments with impartiality, objectivity, and independence, and without consideration of personal interests or the interests of those who hired them. Should such bias be found, the appraisal could be considered worthless and the expert’s reputation damaged, ...

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