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Intellectual Property Valuations

The Relief From Royalty Method (Part I of V) This is the first article of a five-part series that focuses on what valuation analysts and owner/operators need to know about one category of intangible property: intellectual property. There are generally accepted cost approach, market approach, and income approach methods that may be used to value intellectual property. This discussion focuses on the applicati ...

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Cost Approach to Intellectual Property Valuation

Part I: Conceptual Principles This is a four-part article series. The articles and discussion focus on the conceptual principles and the practical applications of the cost approach in the development of intellectual property valuations. Part I of this discussion focuses on the conceptual principles that support the application of the cost approach to intellectual property valuation. Part II describes the ge ...

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Should the Market Approach be Excluded

When Guideline Companies are Not Very Good? When given a choice, do you prefer to minimize errors of commission or omission? The answer will likely influence your view as to whether the market approach should be used when valuing a company with guideline companies that are not very good. Someone who seeks to minimize errors of commission will likely exclude the market approach due to the difficulties in exe ...

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Delaware Chancellor Rejects “Apples-to-Oranges” Damages Analysis

Dieckman v. Regency GP LP et al. This article discusses Dieckman v. Regency GP, LP, a recent Delaware Chancery Court decision. It is a reminder for valuation professionals providing damages testimony to be wary when mixing the use of the market approach and income approach when estimating damages in situations where multiple entities are involved. For example, using the income approach in valuing the allege ...

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Book Review

The Art of Business Valuation: Accurately Valuing a Small Business This is a book review of The Art of Busines Valuation: Accurately Valuing a Small Business. This book is a guide and desk reference for valuing businesses under $10 million in revenues. The primary question answered in the book is: How do we as business valuators, business brokers, accountants, lawyers, owners, and other interested parties p ...

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Paycheck Protection Program

Valuation Considerations When PPP Has Been Used The Payroll Protection Program (PPP) is a program established in 2020 by the U.S. Congress entitled the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act known as the CARES ACT. This Act, which was in response to the President’s closing of the economy on March 13, 2020, was enacted to assist certain businesses, self-employed, sole proprietors, certain nonprof ...

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Valuing a Wealth Management Business

The Art and Science Most businesses have special characteristics that affect its value. Some are endemic to the industry and some relate to the personal nature of those managing the business. Wealth management businesses have both characteristics. Here are some considerations that go into determining the valuation. Most businesses have special characteristics that affect its value. Some are endemic to the i ...

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Issues in Estimating

The Cost of Equity Capital (Part II of II) This is the second of a two-part series article focused on issues that arise estimating the cost of equity capital. In most forensic-related valuation analyses, one procedure that affects most valuations is the measurement of the present value discount rate. This discount rate analysis may affect the forensic-related valuation of private companies, business ownersh ...

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Issues in Estimating

The Cost of Equity Capital (Part I of II) This is the first of a two-part series article focused on issues that arise estimating the cost of equity capital. In most forensic-related valuation analyses, one procedure that affects most valuations is the measurement of the present value discount rate. This discount rate analysis may affect the forensic-related valuation of private companies, business ownership ...

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Terminal Value

The Problem with Exit Multiples Most of an Income Approach-based valuation is frequently in the terminal value. Thus, an Income Approach-based valuation that relies on an exit multiple to arrive at a terminal value is essentially a Market Approach-based valuation in disguise. Many practitioners do not use an exit multiple to arrive at a terminal value for this reason. Nevertheless, numerous practitioners pr ...

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Book Review

The Business Valuation Bench Book by William J. Morrison and Jay E. Fishman In this article, Ed Mendlowitz provides readers a review of William J. Morrison and Jay E. Fishman’s The Business Valuation Bench Book; a book geared to judges. ...

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Which is Best: EV/EBITDA, EV/EBITA, or EV/EBIT?

Adherence to Development and Reporting Standards in Family Law Litigation When applied correctly, the Market Approach can link value to market evidence and help support a thorough and well-reasoned valuation. However, valuation analysts often struggle with a variety of challenges when applying the Market Approach that include locating and selecting good comparable companies, selecting or calculating various ...

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The Asset-Based Valuation Approach

Common Analyst Misconceptions The first article in this series provided an introduction to valuation analysts (analyst) regarding the need to integrate and use the Asset-based Approach to value going-concern businesses and securities. This second installment addresses common analyst misconceptions regarding the use of the Asset-based Approach to value both asset holding companies and operating companies. ...

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Creating the Bridge Between Transfer Pricing and the Valuation of Intangibles

Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) have continued growing since 2008’s financial crisis.  Through the first three months of 2016, the value of worldwide M&A totaled nearly $750 billion.  Cross-border M&A activity totaled $308 billion—accounting for a quarterly record-high 41% share of global M&A value.  As in previous years, M&A in industries with hefty intangible assets—such as pharmaceutic ...

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Consider Market Approach Intellectual Property Valuation Methods

IP Valuation—Beyond the Income and Cost Approach Valuation analysts (“analysts”) are often asked to value debtor company intellectual property (IP) within a business bankruptcy context. Some of the bankruptcy reasons to value IP include the assessment of the following: the debtor’s solvency, a secured creditor’s collateral and protection, the fairness of a Section 363 IP asset sale or license, the debtor’s ...

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Estate of Giustina v. Commissioner

Tax Controversy Insights In matters argued before the U.S. Tax Court, valuation professionals are frequently asked to provide opinions related to the value of closely held businesses and of fractional ownership interests in closely held businesses. This discussion relates to a recent appeal of a U.S. Tax Court decision involving such valuation issues. The case in question is Natale B. Giustina v. Commission ...

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The Utilization of the Market Approach

In Appraising Outpatient Enterprises Healthcare related outpatient enterprises provide services that do not require hospital admission and may be performed outside the premises of a hospital. Similar to valuation of any business, valuations of outpatient enterprises should include consideration of the three general approaches to valuation (i.e., the income approach, the market approach, and the asset/cost a ...

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Hospital Valuations–Market Approach

Beware of the Limitations of Hospital Transaction Databases The market approach is one of three established valuation approaches. In this approach the valuation analyst will look for comparable companies. In this article the authors caution against the outright use of databases as a means of developing a Conclusion of Value for a hospital. Independent verification is time-consuming and essential. The author ...

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