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Task List

For When a Client Wants to Buy a Business The authors in this article share a checklist developed and provided to firm clients contemplating buying a business. The following are key steps involved when a client wants to buy a business. Buyers and their advisors can use this list as a timeline and road map of the steps that are expected to occur, and what they should plan on doing. A companion posting for cl ...

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How to Determine Fair Value

In a SPAC Merger Transaction The fair value of equity consideration issued in a merger involving a public company is generally calculated as the product of the quoted price for the individual equity instrument times the quantity issued (commonly referred to a “P times Q”). However, if the merger involves a special purpose acquisition company (SPAC), determining “P” can be subjective and may result in differ ...

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Task List

For When a Client Wants to Sell Their Business The authors in this article share a checklist developed and provided to firm clients contemplating a sell of their business. Following are the steps involved when a client wants to sell their business. Buyers can also use this list as a timeline and road map of the steps that are expected to occur and what is expected of them. ❏  Be sure client wants to se ...

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Valuation Treatment of the ESOP

Repurchase Obligation Liability There are certain valuation aspects that are unique to employee stock ownership plan (ESOP) sponsor company valuation engagements. The ESOP repurchase obligation is one of those aspects. There is a diversity of practice in the valuation profession as to how to treat the repurchase obligation for sponsor company valuations performed for ESOP administration purposes. There are ...

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Legacy Payments

Miscalculations and Entitlement Traps? What exactly is a “Legacy Payment”? Legacy Payments are those payments made to the prior generation when the next generation buys a family business. These payments include the debt service, principal and interest, on the purchase of the family business and possibly the real estate too; in addition, there are other types of Legacy Payments that can add weight to the tot ...

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When a Purchase Involves Both Cash and Stock

Buyer and Seller Beware When a privately-held acquirer uses its stock to partly purchase a company, it is imperative that both the acquirer and the target in a transaction have support for, and a level of comfort with, the value assigned to the acquirer’s shares if they are being issued as part of the deal. It is especially important for the seller to conduct its own due diligence to better assess its risk ...

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Should the Discount Rate for Contingent/Unliquidated Liabilities be Low, Medium, or High?

Valuing Liabilities Differs from Valuing Assets Valuing contingent/unliquidated liabilities raises some interesting questions. Do contingent/unliquidated liabilities have liability-specific risk? If yes, does liability-specific risk result in lower or higher obligations? Why do contingent/unliquidated liabilities related to lawsuits tend to settle as opposed to go through verdict and appeals? This article a ...

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The Role of the Valuation Analyst

In an ESOP Formation Financial Feasibility Analysis (Part II of II) This is the second of two-part article that discusses ESOPs. In this part, the author focuses on quality of earnings, liquidity, and plan design analyses. Owners of a private company who are looking for an exit strategy may consider the sale of all (or part) of the company to an employee stock ownership plan (ESOP). Such a strategy may be p ...

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The Role of the Valuation Analyst

In an ESOP Formation Financial Feasibility Analysis (Part I of II) This two-part article discusses ESOPs. Owners of a private company who are looking for an exit strategy may consider the sale of all (or part) of the company to an employee stock ownership plan (ESOP). Such a strategy may be particularly attractive to baby boomer private company owners who are seeking retirement and liquidity and who would p ...

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Terminal Values in DCFs

And Runaway Valuations In a discounted cash flow analysis, a large portion of a firm’s value is typically attributed to the terminal value, i.e., the value beyond the projection period. Valuation presentations often show or discuss what happens to the firm’s value if the perpetuity growth rate (PGR) is changed. In this sensitivity analysis, it is common to see wild swings in valuations because the terminal ...

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Valuation Discounts

Applicable to Real Estate Holding Companies (Part I of II) In this two-part series, the author discusses real estate holding companies and describes the use of minority discounts (also known as the discount for lack of control [DLOC]) in the valuation of partial, non-controlling interests in entities holding real estate as their primary and most valuable asset. Part II will address the use of the discount f ...

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Tax/Personal Financial Planning

Avoid Traps with a Timely Appraisal New basis-consistency requirements make defensible valuations of inherited property even more important. Informed taxpayers are aware that only the wealthiest individuals should have concerns about the federal estate and gift tax, for gifts given and decedents dying in 2018 through 2025. Thanks to the legislation known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA), P.L. 115-97, the ...

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Case Law Update

February 2019—U.S. Tax Court on Valuation of Conservation Easements and Expert Testimony The U.S. Tax Court issued two valuation decisions in late December 2018 that may be of interest to QuickRead readers. The opinion is 116 pages long and delves into what is a qualified real property easement that qualifies for a charitable deduction, and the 36-page memorandum provides guidance regarding how the court we ...

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A Valuation Practitioner’s Musings

on Corporate Income Taxes What corporate tax rate should valuation practitioners use going forward given the current environment? Despite corporate rates being “permanent”, is that so?! How should practitioners handle temporary differences? How do we decode a financial statement? In this article, the author shares his thoughts on how valuation professionals should approach a valuation engagement in this unc ...

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The Pink Elephant in the Courtroom

Un-Impeaching Opinions of Calculated Values Valuation or calculation? That is the question asked, answered, and argued by judges, experts, lawyers, and industry thought leaders apropos to whether a calculation of value can be used in litigation. The answer echoed throughout courtrooms across America thus far is a resounding “it depends.” This article offers a synopsis of the debate over calculation engageme ...

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A Comprehensive Approach

to Valuation of a Healthcare Practice or Entity A valuation consultant must understand the type of healthcare entity he or she is valuing, the opportunities and risks as discussed above, the potential buyers, the marketplace, and typical valuation multiples for specific types of deals. Extensive research into these areas will lead to a significantly better and more informed valuation. The author discusses t ...

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In re Appraisal of DFC Global

A Study of the Experts’ Inputs and Court Opinion How does a court go about deciding a valuation case when two experts oppose each other? The author examines the DFC Global Corporation decision to see what that reveals and how that may impact an expert’s future engagement. The author finds three takeaways for readers. ...

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The Due Diligence Imperative

Healthcare Reimbursement Environment, Part II of VI In the January/February 2018 issue of The Value Examiner, the author provides readers with an overview of the U.S. healthcare reimbursement system and details the due diligence process as it relates to reimbursement. This brief article is an excerpt, which is part of the series on healthcare reimbursement, where the author provides more in-depth explanatio ...

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