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The Expert Witness Exchange: Car Rentals, $16 Million

and an Expert Witness While there are hundreds of Daubert decisions issued every week, only a few go a long way in shaping the way experts are screened by judges in the future. And even fewer times, a multimillion-dollar verdict is hinged solely on the expert witness testimony! In this article, the author discusses the district and appellate court decision in Alaska Rent-A-Car v. Avis Budget Group. ...

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Overview of Fair Value Considerations in Business Combinations

Bargain Purchase Transactions This article summarizes the fair value measurement guidance and financial accounting considerations in business combinations—and specifically, in bargain purchase transactions. This discussion also describes the principles of acquisition accounting as they relate to fair value measurement. And, this discussion describes many of the valuation analyst considerations regarding the ...

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Case Law Update

Highlighting Recent Delaware Court Cases In this Case Law Update, three recent Delaware Court cases are reviewed. Two cases focus on whether the deal value is fair value and the third focuses on matters discovered following approval of a merger and who has standing to sue and what remedy, if any, is available to the disgruntled plaintiffs. The first two cases also delve into the role of experts, inputs that ...

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The Impact of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act

On Business Valuations The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) changes many aspects of how business analysts perform valuations. Upon passing of the TCJA, Jim Hitchner moved quickly to gather and disseminate information about the TCJA and its effect on business valuation. He has written two comprehensive articles in Issues 72 and 73 of Financial Valuation and Litigation Expert. The information in this article summ ...

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In re Appraisal of DFC Global

A Study of the Experts’ Inputs and Court Opinion How does a court go about deciding a valuation case when two experts oppose each other? The author examines the DFC Global Corporation decision to see what that reveals and how that may impact an expert’s future engagement. The author finds three takeaways for readers. ...

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Why We Shouldn’t Add a Size Premium to the CAPM Cost of Equity

A Critique of the Ibbotson Methodology In this paper, the author argues that the Size Premium in Excess of CAPM (and other similar size premium measures) should not be used by valuation practitioners because: a) it is inconsistent with the empirical evidence; b) it is constructed using a method that is inconsistent with how practitioners estimate their CAPM cost of equity; and c) it does not properly calcul ...

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Estimating Debt Betas and Beta Unlevering Formulas

Use of Benninga-Sarig to Estimate Debt Betas in a Valuation Engagement In the July 8, 2016 In re Appraisal of DFC Global Corp. Opinion (DFC Opinion), the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware suggested that debt betas should be estimated for individual companies and it cited Pratt and Grabowski’s Cost of Capital as a source for debt betas based on the firm’s credit rating. In addition, the Court also a ...

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Valuation Expertise is Necessary to Navigate Chapter 11

Once a petition for Chapter 11 is filed with the bankruptcy court, the company usually undertakes a strategic review of its operations, including opportunities to shed assets or even lines of businesses.  The Chapter 11 reorganization process concludes when the bankruptcy court confirms a reorganization plan which specifies a reorganization value and which reflects the agreed upon strategic direction and ca ...

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Dissenting Shareholders and Bank Appraisals: Speak Now or Forever Hold Your Peace

Being on the rise, dissenting actions are catching the eye of investors, attorneys, and other deal makers.  Jay D. Wilson, Jr., senior member of Mercer Capital’s Depository Institutions practice, takes a look at why it is important an appraiser preparing a valuation of a bank in an appraisal action understand both valuation techniques and the banking industry. To read more about the results of this report i ...

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Kardash v. Commissioner, T.C. Memo. 2015-51

Assessing Solvency, Fraudulent Transfers, and Liability When Distributions are Made to Minority Shareholders The recent U.S. Tax Court case of Kardash v Commissioner, T.C. Memo, 2015–51 provides guidance regarding transferee liability and underscores how valuations are used to determine when and if a subject company is insolvent. The case also summarizes a number of defenses used (and rejected) to counter a ...

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Discounted Cash Flow Valuations (DCF): Academic Exercise, Sales Pitch or Investor Tool?

Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) valuation is simple at its core, yet often intimidates many says Aswath Damodaran, Professor of Finance at the Stern School of Business at New York University.  You need one only theory to value companies that is based on the equation that the value of an asset is the value of the expected cash flows over its lifetime, adjusted for risk and the time value of money. To learn how to ...

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Development and Application of Company Management-Prepared Projections in a Dissenting Shareholder Appraisal Action Context

The proper usage of company management-prepared projections when applying the Income Approach—Discounted Cash Flow Method—is an ongoing issue for any valuation analyst, especially as it relates to shareholder appraisal rights actions. The Delaware Chancery Court regularly provides guidance as to the proper usage of management projections when applying the Discounted Cash Flow Method within a dissenting shar ...

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The Unreliability Of The Discounted Cash Flow Valuation Methodology

In defense of the Discounted Cash Flow Method Richard R. Conn challenges criticism of the Discounted Cash Flow Approach and premise that the Market Approach is superior to an Income-Based Approach, even when there is more just superficial observations. The author proposes that “ it is important to realize that the circumstances in which the DCF Method indicates a different value than the market price should ...

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Case Update—Is the Discounted Cash Flow Model Subject to Manipulation?

In re Bachrach: the U.S. Bankruptcy Court comments on the discounted cash flow and experts’ reports The discounted cash flow analysis (DCF) has been a standard valuation and damages method for many years. However, a U.S. Bankruptcy Court recently suggested that the “striking” disparity between experts’ conclusions in a case before the court “lends credibility to the concept that the discounted cash flow met ...

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Using Warren Buffett’s “Buffett-style” Valuation on US Bancorp

I built an Excel file with a valuation model using Warren Buffett's measure of "owner's earnings."  In an interesting spin on valuation, analysts at AquaResearch applied what they call “Buffett-style, owner’s earnings” valuation calculations to the US Bancorp (USB) company stock in a DCF style approach.  The author supports his review with a link to an excel file which completely lays out Warren Buffett’s v ...

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Estate of Gallagher Tax Court Case is a Valuation Tutorial

The Tax Court Speaks Loudly and Firmly on the Responsibilities of Business Appraisers Hempstead & Co. has published "Estate of Gallagher is a Valuation Tutorial."  The article emphasizes the importance of providing the court with a clear and convincing explanation of the assumptions and arguments you have employed in carrying out a business appraisal. It discusses the recent Tax Court Memorandum opinion ...

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An Analysis of Discount For Lack of Marketability Models and Studies

Calculating Discounts Accurately Depends a Lot on Company Specifics. Here’s What You Need to Know Dennis Bingham and KC Conrad provide a thorough look at options for calculating a discount for lack of marketability (DLOM), including restricted stock studies, pre-IPO studies, theoretical and option pricing models, discounted cash flow (DCF), Mandelbaum factors, and more. ...

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