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Using the Option Pricing Method Changes the Standard of Value

Does the IRS or Anyone Care? (Part II of II) Part one of this article presented the “current method” and “option pricing method” (OPM) for allocating value to common stock for 409a valuations, and how these two methods differ in pricing of common stock. Part two examines the implied changes made by OPM and how it affects stakeholders. The article begins with a brief review of the key impacts on the valuatio ...

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Objectively Supporting Discounts for Lack of Marketability

Using the Empirical Method Business appraisers around the country have historically used comparisons to the averages found in restricted stock studies to determine a discount for lack of marketability in their valuations of a privately held, noncontrolling interest in a business. While the average discounts from restricted stock studies are useful and indicate that discounts for lack of marketability do occ ...

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Exploring the Pluris® Restricted Stock Database and DLOM Calculator

A White Paper Detailing Use of the Pluris Database to Develop a DLOM (Part III of III) The Pluris DLOM methodology involves calculating two values: Restricted Stock Equivalent Discount (RSED) and Private Equity Discount Increment (PEDI). Does RSED represent an illiquid position that does not directly relate to the lack of marketability of a private held business? How reliable is the RSED DLOM? As for PEDI, ...

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Exploring the Pluris® Restricted Stock Database and DLOM Calculator

A White Paper Detailing Use of the Pluris Database to Develop a DLOM (Part II of III) In this second part, of a three-part series, Marc Vianello examines whether discounts reported in PLURIS DLOM Database are consistent with past changes in SEC Rule 144 required holding periods; How the PLURIS Restricted Stock Discounts Correlate with other reported Metrics; How to use PLURIS Database for Benchmarking; and ...

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Exploring the Pluris® Restricted Stock Database and DLOM Calculator

A White Paper Detailing Use of the Pluris Database to Develop a DLOM (Part I of III) Business valuation practitioners continue to debate the merits of different databases to develop a discount for lack of marketability (DLOM).  In this first- of a three-part series, Marc Vianello discusses what the Pluris DLOM database is, explores how accurately Pluris transactions are reported, and discusses how the Pluri ...

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Valuation Implications of the Proposed Changes to Section 2704: Good News or Bad News? Maybe Not so Bad.

It is clear that the DOT/IRS are attempting, through Proposed Changes to Section 2704 of the Internal Revenue Code, to eliminate minority interest discounts and marketability discounts (DLOMs), even though those terms are not mentioned at all.  To address the valuation side of things, Chris Mercer, founder and CEO of Mercer Capital, wrote a whitepaper outlining his thinking on valuation implications in some ...

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Proposed IRC Sec. 2704 Regulations Released

Valuation and Planning Impacts This article outlines the major provisions of the proposed regulations. If the proposed regulations are adopted in their current form, they only apply to transfers made after the final regulations are promulgated, and the most pervasive provisions of the proposed regulations, apply only to transfers made at least thirty days after the restrictions become final. ...

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Discounts for Lack of Marketability

Consideration for Closely Held Securities, Part I of II Valuation analysts may be asked to value closely held company securities for various reasons. These reasons include transaction pricing, financial accounting, taxation planning and compliance, and litigation (related to both breach of contract and tort claims). Depending on: 1) the business valuation approaches and methods applied; and 2) the benchmark ...

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The Cost to Obtain Liquidity

Studies in the Closely Held Company Valuation (Part II of II) In the first part of this two-part discussion, the author identified six transaction risk factors attempting to sell a controlling (including 100 percent) interest in a closely held company. Those included: 1) an uncertain time horizon to complete the offering or sale; 2) “Make ready” accounting, legal, and other costs to prepare for and execute ...

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Measuring the DLOM for a Closely Held Company Controlling Interest

Six Transaction Risks Owners Face Selling a Company that May Explain DLOM (Part I of II) In this first of a two-part article, Robert Reilly reviews the various models analysts use to estimate the DLOM and factors analysts consider in the DLOM selection. Valuation analysts often value closely held companies for transaction, taxation, financing, accounting, litigation, and other purposes. Depending on: 1) the ...

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Discounts on Family Limited Partnership

The IRS is Challenging the Appropriateness of Discounts when Preparing a Valuation The current regulations, Revenue-Ruling 93-12, allow for discounts when valuing a Family Limited Partnership (FLP). The proposal is expected to potentially limit the allowed discount and consequently raise the taxable portion of the trust or estate structures. This article reviews the current requirements for FLPs, their hist ...

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Estate of Giustina v. Commissioner

Tax Controversy Insights In matters argued before the U.S. Tax Court, valuation professionals are frequently asked to provide opinions related to the value of closely held businesses and of fractional ownership interests in closely held businesses. This discussion relates to a recent appeal of a U.S. Tax Court decision involving such valuation issues. The case in question is Natale B. Giustina v. Commission ...

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Look Before You Leap: Evaluating a Section 83(b) Election

Do you and your employees know how to get the most tax savings when choosing a benefit election?  Sujan Rajbhandary, senior member of Mercer Capital’s Financial Reporting Valuation Group, discusses an IRC Section 83(b) election and what’s considered in making this choice. To read more about the results of this report in the Mercer Capital's Financial Reporting Blog, click: Look Before You Leap: Evaluating a ...

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Probability Based Estimation and the DLOM Calculation

Refining and Selecting the Appropriate DLOM The discount for lack of marketability (DLOM) is the result of illiquidity. It represents the inability to sell quickly when an investor decides to sell an asset. It is the economic cost of failing to realize gains or to avoid losses during the time period that the investor or closely held business owner is trying to sell the asset or securities. In this article, ...

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Are Family Limited Partnership Discounts About to End for Newly Formed FLPs?

Is There a Reason to Act Soon? Will the IRS Prevail this Time? The IRS is considering issuing proposed Section (SEC) 2704(b)(4) regulations to limit the availability of discounts for lack of control and lack of marketability. The article highlights the need to communicate with estate and gift tax attorneys that have discussed forming a FLP. While practitioners do not know what is being proposed, the §2704 l ...

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The Valuation of a Closely Held Business

Distinct Qualities and Considerations (Part 2 of 2) In the first part of this series, the author looked at some of the methodologies for considering closely held or private companies. In this second part, the last of the two-part series, the author reviews some of the IRS, judicial, investment banking practices. and other considerations in the valuation process. ...

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Nevada Senate Bill 3501

Restrictions on Distributions and Impact on DLOM…Who Else Will Follow? In 2009 Nevada Senate Bill 350 was passed into law. This law authorized the creation of two new business entities: the Restricted LLC and Restricted LP. The bill also allowed for the conversion of existing entities into one of the above types. In this article, Eric J. Barr provides an overview of these two entities and raises questions r ...

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Valuing Equity in Real Estate-Holding Entities

Think like an investor, not an accountant! If fair market value is to determine investor expectations and equity risk; then why do these factors receive limited or no consideration when opining on the level of impairments (investor concessions) ubiquitously referred to ask discounts? This article addresses the business risks associated with asset-holding companies' equity that should be considered and repor ...

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