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Separating Personal Goodwill from Entity Goodwill in the Closely Held Company Valuation

Guidance from Bross Trucking v. Commissioner (2014) Valuation analysts often have to separate company-owned entity goodwill from shareholder-owned personal goodwill in the valuation of closely held companies. These valuations may be performed for family law, shareholder dispute, breach of contract, or other litigation purposes; for transaction structuring and sale consideration allocation purposes; and for ...

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Dissenting Shareholder Appraisal Rights and Shareholder Oppression Claims

Similarities and Differences in Securities Valuation Over the past three decades, the number of both dissenting shareholder appraisal rights claims and shareholder oppression claims have increased significantly. This increase has created a demand for forensic-related business and security valuation services. Valuation analysts are not legal counsel, of course. However, valuation analysts who practice in thi ...

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Lost Profits: The Reasonable Certainty Standards and the Modern New Business Rule

While the vast majority of jurisdictions have moved away from the new business rule and adopted the modern new business rule, by which new/unestablished businesses can recover damages, such adoption does not diminish the requirements under the reasonable certainty standard. Given the lack of historical financial performance data and under the lens of the reasonable certainty standard, estimates of lost prof ...

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One of AIG’s Largest Shareholders Put the Terms of AIG’s Bailout on Trial

Moral Victory: Plaintiff Wins the Battle (Causation) But Loses the War (Damages) AIG collapsed in the wake of Lehman’s bankruptcy filing and required a government bailout in order to avoid the same fate as Lehman. The plaintiff (AIG’s shareholders) contended that they were harmed by the relatively harsh bailout terms that were imposed on AIG but no other bailout recipients. The defendant (U.S. government) c ...

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The Valuation Analyst’s Role

In Economic Substance Analyses Valuation analysts and other financial advisers are often called on to perform economic substance analyses in federal income tax challenges. In these cases, the Internal Revenue Service challenges a tax deduction or loss related to a taxpayer transaction by applying the so-called economic substance doctrine. This doctrine allows the Service to disallow a taxpayer transaction i ...

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Mediation 101

Understanding the Magic Mediation is an exceedingly simple and yet extremely powerful dispute resolution process. Principles, process, and prerequisites coalesce to produce the magic of mediation. Those understanding the essential three “P's” of mediation benefit by becoming better negotiators, thus producing more satisfying results and enjoying higher settlement rates. ...

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Lost Profits, Business Cycles, and the Reasonable Certainty Standard

Part 1: Find Industry and Location-Specific Data Courts standards require that damages analysis results be within “reasonable certainty”, and objective rather than speculative. And while the terms “reasonable certainty” and “speculative” are more terms of art than science, given these standards, it is of vital importance to analyze all relevant factors to the extent permitted by the best data available. And ...

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Improve Settlement Odds

Tips for Selecting a Mediator Mediation provides an alternate means of resolving disputes. But how effective is mediation? Who should use mediation? In this article, Nancy Neal Yeend answers these questions and offers key points to consider when selecting a mediator. ...

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Identifying and Calculating Recoverable Damages in Cyber Security Breaches—Part 2

Predicting Cyber Security Breaches Cyber security breaches often result in the improper transfer of personal identifying information or sensitive financial and health information. This article focuses on the identification of potential cyber security breaches and how courts are addressing the presentation of such cases, including the issue of damages. Read Identifying and Calculating Recoverable Damages in ...

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Identifying and Calculating Recoverable Damages in Cyber Security Breaches—Part 1

Predicting cyber security breaches Cyber security breaches often result in the improper transfer of personal identifying information or sensitive financial and health information. This article focuses on the identification of potential cyber security breaches and how courts are addressing the presentation of such cases, including the issue of damages. ...

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The High Cost of Keeping Credibility

Handling lawyers who coax you to work from their summary of the evidence Expert witnesses have an ethical responsibility, as well as a business imperative, to ensure they review the actual evidence that supports their analyses. Because expert witness testimony can make or break litigation outcomes, consultants cannot risk having their testimony excluded by the trial judge or discredited by the jury. ...

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Discounting Economic Damages to Present Day Value

What discount rate should you use? Economic damages in litigation must be reduced to present day dollar values to avoid over-compensating the Plaintiff for harm caused by the defendant. This article explains present value theory in simple terms and addresses different methodologies used in reducing future economic damages to a present day dollar value. ...

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Basic Statistics

A good start for a forensic accounting engagement Statistical data is commonly presented in litigation reports. The data provides valuable information to test the hypothesis. This article provides an introduction of how some statistical techniques that are readily available can be used in practice. ...

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The Third Leg of Expert Witness Preparation

Good communication skills are essential for the expert Witness Expert witnesses and litigation support professionals generally do not consider the importance of communication skill training and practice as part of their preparation process. Communication is the third leg of expert witness preparation and separates the average witness from the great witness. ...

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